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Backup and restore Elasticsearch database deployed with KubeDB

Stash 0.9.0+ supports backup and restoration of Elasticsearch clusters. This guide will show you how you can backup and restore your KubeDB deployed Elasticsearch database using Stash.

Before You Begin

  • At first, you need to have a Kubernetes cluster, and the kubectl command-line tool must be configured to communicate with your cluster.
  • Install Stash Enterprise in your cluster following the steps here.
  • Install KubeDB in your cluster following the steps here.
  • If you are not familiar with how Stash backup and restore Elasticsearch databases, please check the following guide here.

You have to be familiar with following custom resources:

To keep things isolated, we are going to use a separate namespace called demo throughout this tutorial. Create demo namespace if you haven’t created it yet.

$ kubectl create ns demo
namespace/demo created

Note: YAML files used in this tutorial are stored here.

Prepare Elasticsearch

In this section, we are going to deploy an Elasticsearch database using KubeDB. Then, we are going to insert some sample data into it.

Deploy Elasticsearch

At first, let’s deploy a sample Elasticsearch database. Below is the YAML of a sample Elasticsearch crd that we are going to create for this tutorial:

apiVersion: kubedb.com/v1alpha2
kind: Elasticsearch
metadata:
  name: sample-es
  namespace: demo
spec:
  version: xpack-7.9.1-v1
  storageType: Durable
  topology:
    master:
      suffix: master
      replicas: 1
      storage:
        storageClassName: "standard"
        accessModes:
        - ReadWriteOnce
        resources:
          requests:
            storage: 1Gi
    data:
      suffix: data
      replicas: 2
      storage:
        storageClassName: "standard"
        accessModes:
        - ReadWriteOnce
        resources:
          requests:
            storage: 1Gi
    ingest:
      suffix: client
      replicas: 2
      storage:
        storageClassName: "standard"
        accessModes:
        - ReadWriteOnce
        resources:
          requests:
            storage: 1Gi

Let’s create the above Elasticsearch object,

$ kubectl apply -f https://github.com/stashed/docs/raw/v2021.04.12/docs/addons/elasticsearch/kubedb/examples/elasticsearch/sample_es.yaml
elasticsearch.kubedb.com/sample-es created

KubeDB will create the necessary resources to deploy the Elasticsearch database according to the above specification. Let’s wait until the database to be ready to use,

❯ kubectl get elasticsearch -n demo -w
NAME        VERSION          STATUS         AGE
sample-es   xpack-7.9.1-v1   Provisioning   89s
sample-es   xpack-7.9.1-v1   Ready          5m26s

The database is in Ready state. It means the database is ready to accept connections.

Insert Sample Data

In this section, we are going to create few indexes in the deployed Elasticsearch. At first, we are going to port-forward the respective Service so that we can connect with the database from our local machine. Then, we are going to insert some data into the Elasticsearch.

Port-forward the Service

KubeDB will create few Services to connect with the database. Let’s see the Services created by KubeDB for our Elasticsearch,

❯ kubectl get service -n demo
NAME               TYPE        CLUSTER-IP       EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)    AGE
sample-es          ClusterIP   10.108.129.195   <none>        9200/TCP   10m
sample-es-master   ClusterIP   None             <none>        9300/TCP   10m
sample-es-pods     ClusterIP   None             <none>        9200/TCP   10m

Here, we are going to use the sample-es Service to connect with the database. Now, let’s port-forward the sample-es Service. Run the following command into a separate terminal.

❯ kubectl port-forward -n demo service/sample-es 9200
Forwarding from 127.0.0.1:9200 -> 9200
Forwarding from [::1]:9200 -> 9200

Export the Credentials

KubeDB will create some Secrets for the database. Let’s check which Secrets have been created by KubeDB for our sample-es Elasticsearch.

❯ kubectl get secret -n demo | grep sample-es
sample-es-ca-cert          kubernetes.io/tls                     2      21m
sample-es-config           Opaque                                1      21m
sample-es-elastic-cred     kubernetes.io/basic-auth              2      21m
sample-es-token-ctzn5      kubernetes.io/service-account-token   3      21m
sample-es-transport-cert   kubernetes.io/tls                     3      21m

Here, sample-es-elastic-cred contains the credentials require to connect with the database. Let’s export the credentials as environment variable to our current shell so that we can easily environment variables to connect with the database.

❯ export USER=$(kubectl get secrets -n demo sample-es-elastic-cred -o jsonpath='{.data.\username}' | base64 -d)
❯ export PASSWORD=$(kubectl get secrets -n demo sample-es-elastic-cred -o jsonpath='{.data.\password}' | base64 -d)

Insert data

Now, let’s create an index called products and insert some data into it.

# Elasticsearch will automatically create the index if it does not exist already.
❯ curl -XPOST --user "$USER:$PASSWORD" "http://localhost:9200/products/_doc?pretty" -H 'Content-Type: application/json' -d'
{
    "name": "KubeDB",
    "vendor": "AppsCode Inc.",
    "description": "Database Operator for Kubernetes"
}
'

# Let's insert another data into the "products" index.
❯ curl -XPOST --user "$USER:$PASSWORD" "http://localhost:9200/products/_doc?pretty" -H 'Content-Type: application/json' -d'
{
    "name": "Stash",
    "vendor": "AppsCode Inc.",
    "description": "Backup tool for Kubernetes workloads"
}
'

Let’s create another index called companies and insert some data into it.

❯ curl -XPOST --user "$USER:$PASSWORD" "http://localhost:9200/companies/_doc?pretty" -H 'Content-Type: application/json' -d'
{
    "name": "AppsCode Inc.",
    "mission": "Accelerate the transition to Containers by building a Kubernetes-native Data Platform",
    "products": ["KubeDB", "Stash", "KubeVault", "Kubeform", "ByteBuilders"]
}
'

Now, let’s verify that the indexes have been created successfully.

❯ curl -XGET --user "$USER:$PASSWORD" "http://localhost:9200/_cat/indices?v&s=index&pretty"
health status index     uuid                   pri rep docs.count docs.deleted store.size pri.store.size
green  open   companies qs52L4xrShay14NPUExDNw   1   1          1            0     11.5kb          5.7kb
green  open   products  6aCd7y_kQf26sYG3QdY0ow   1   1          2            0     20.7kb         10.3kb

Also, let’s verify the data in the indexes:

# Verify the data in the "product" index.
❯ curl -XGET --user "$USER:$PASSWORD" "http://localhost:9200/products/_search?pretty"
{
  "took" : 354,
  "timed_out" : false,
  "_shards" : {
    "total" : 1,
    "successful" : 1,
    "skipped" : 0,
    "failed" : 0
  },
  "hits" : {
    "total" : {
      "value" : 2,
      "relation" : "eq"
    },
    "max_score" : 1.0,
    "hits" : [
      {
        "_index" : "products",
        "_type" : "_doc",
        "_id" : "3GyXa3cB55U52E6TvL8f",
        "_score" : 1.0,
        "_source" : {
          "name" : "KubeDB",
          "vendor" : "AppsCode Inc.",
          "description" : "Database Operator for Kubernetes"
        }
      },
      {
        "_index" : "products",
        "_type" : "_doc",
        "_id" : "3WyYa3cB55U52E6Tc7_G",
        "_score" : 1.0,
        "_source" : {
          "name" : "Stash",
          "vendor" : "AppsCode Inc.",
          "description" : "Backup tool for Kubernetes workloads"
        }
      }
    ]
  }
}

# Verify data in the "companies" index.
❯ curl -XGET --user "$USER:$PASSWORD" "http://localhost:9200/companies/_search?pretty"
{
  "took" : 172,
  "timed_out" : false,
  "_shards" : {
    "total" : 1,
    "successful" : 1,
    "skipped" : 0,
    "failed" : 0
  },
  "hits" : {
    "total" : {
      "value" : 1,
      "relation" : "eq"
    },
    "max_score" : 1.0,
    "hits" : [
      {
        "_index" : "companies",
        "_type" : "_doc",
        "_id" : "3myya3cB55U52E6TE78a",
        "_score" : 1.0,
        "_source" : {
          "name" : "AppsCode Inc.",
          "mission" : "Accelerate the transition to Containers by building a Kubernetes-native Data Platform",
          "products" : [
            "KubeDB",
            "Stash",
            "KubeVault",
            "Kubeform",
            "ByteBuilders"
          ]
        }
      }
    ]
  }
}

We now have sample data in our database. In the next section, we are going to prepare the necessary resources to backup these sample data.

Prepare for Backup

In this section, we are going to prepare our cluster for backup.

Ensure Elasticsearch Addons

When you install Stash Enterprise version, it will automatically install the pre-build database addons. Make sure the addons for Elasticsearch has been installed using the following command.

❯ kubectl get tasks.stash.appscode.com | grep elasticsearch
elasticsearch-backup-5.6.4    3d2h
elasticsearch-backup-6.2.4    3d2h
elasticsearch-backup-6.3.0    3d2h
elasticsearch-backup-6.4.0    3d2h
elasticsearch-backup-6.5.3    3d2h
elasticsearch-backup-6.8.0    3d2h
elasticsearch-backup-7.2.0    3d2h
elasticsearch-backup-7.3.2    3d2h
elasticsearch-restore-5.6.4   3d2h
elasticsearch-restore-6.2.4   3d2h
elasticsearch-restore-6.3.0   3d2h
elasticsearch-restore-6.4.0   3d2h
elasticsearch-restore-6.5.3   3d2h
elasticsearch-restore-6.8.0   3d2h
elasticsearch-restore-7.2.0   3d2h
elasticsearch-restore-7.3.2   3d2h

Any of these addon versions should be able to take backup of the databases with matching major versions as discussed in Addon Version Compatibility.

Verify AppBinding

KubeDB will create an AppBinding object with the same name as the database object which contains the necessary information requires to connect with the database.

Let’s verify that the AppBinding object has been created for our sample-es Elasticsearch,

❯ kubectl get appbindings.appcatalog.appscode.com -n demo sample-es
NAME        TYPE                       VERSION   AGE
sample-es   kubedb.com/elasticsearch   7.9.1     2d

Now, if you check the YAML of the AppBinding, you will see that it contains the service and secret information that are necessary to connect with the database.

❯ kubectl get appbindings.appcatalog.appscode.com -n demo sample-es -o yaml
apiVersion: appcatalog.appscode.com/v1alpha1
kind: AppBinding
metadata:
  name: sample-es
  namespace: demo
  ...
spec:
  clientConfig:
    service:
      name: sample-es
      port: 9200
      scheme: http
  secret:
    name: sample-es-elastic-cred
  type: kubedb.com/elasticsearch
  version: 7.9.1

Prepare Backend

We are going to store our backed up data into a GCS bucket. So, we need to create a Secret with GCS credentials and a Repository object with the bucket information. If you want to use a different backend, please read the respective backend configuration doc from here.

Create Storage Secret

At first, let’s create a Secret called gcs-secret with access credentials to our desired GCS bucket,

$ echo -n 'changeit' > RESTIC_PASSWORD
$ echo -n '<your-project-id>' > GOOGLE_PROJECT_ID
$ cat downloaded-sa-json.key > GOOGLE_SERVICE_ACCOUNT_JSON_KEY
$ kubectl create secret generic -n demo gcs-secret \
    --from-file=./RESTIC_PASSWORD \
    --from-file=./GOOGLE_PROJECT_ID \
    --from-file=./GOOGLE_SERVICE_ACCOUNT_JSON_KEY
secret/gcs-secret created

Create Repository

Now, crete a Repository object with the information of your desired bucket. Below is the YAML of Repository object we are going to create,

apiVersion: stash.appscode.com/v1alpha1
kind: Repository
metadata:
  name: gcs-repo
  namespace: demo
spec:
  backend:
    gcs:
      bucket: stash-testing
      prefix: /demo/sample-es
    storageSecretName: gcs-secret

Let’s create the Repository we have shown above,

$ kubectl create -f https://github.com/stashed/docs/raw/v2021.04.12/docs/addons/elasticsearch/kubedb/examples/backup/repository.yaml
repository.stash.appscode.com/gcs-repo created

Now, we are ready to backup our database into our desired backend.

Backup

To schedule a backup, we have to create a BackupConfiguration object targeting the respective AppBinding of our desired database. Then, Stash will create a CronJob to periodically trigger a backup of the database.

Create BackupConfiguration

Below is the YAML for BackupConfiguration object we care going to use to backup the sample-es database we have deployed earlier,

apiVersion: stash.appscode.com/v1beta1
kind: BackupConfiguration
metadata:
  name: sample-es-backup
  namespace: demo
spec:
  schedule: "*/5 * * * *"
  task:
    name: elasticsearch-backup-7.3.2
  repository:
    name: gcs-repo
  target:
    ref:
      apiVersion: appcatalog.appscode.com/v1alpha1
      kind: AppBinding
      name: sample-es
  interimVolumeTemplate:
    metadata:
      name: sample-es-backup-tmp-storage
    spec:
      accessModes: [ "ReadWriteOnce" ]
      storageClassName: "standard"
      resources:
        requests:
          storage: 1Gi
  retentionPolicy:
    name: keep-last-5
    keepLast: 5
    prune: true

Here,

  • .spec.schedule specifies that we want to backup the database every 5th minutes.
  • .spec.task.name specifies the name of the Task object that specifies the necessary Functions and their execution order to backup an Elasticsearch database.
  • .spec.target.ref refers to the AppBinding object that holds the connection information of our targeted database.
  • spec.interimVolumeTemplate specifies a PVC template that will be used by Stash to hold the dumped data temporarily before uploading it into the cloud bucket.

Let’s create the BackupConfiguration object we have shown above,

$ kubectl create -f https://github.com/stashed/docs/raw/v2021.04.12/docs/addons/elasticsearch/kubedb/examples/backup/backupconfiguration.yaml
backupconfiguration.stash.appscode.com/sample-es-backup created

Verify CronJob

If everything goes well, Stash will create a CronJob with the schedule specified in the spec.schedule field of BackupConfiguration object.

Verify that the CronJob has been created using the following command,

❯ kubectl get cronjob -n demo
NAME                            SCHEDULE      SUSPEND   ACTIVE   LAST SCHEDULE   AGE
stash-backup-sample-es-backup   */5 * * * *   False     0        <none>          9s

Wait for BackupSession

The stash-backup-sample-es-backup CronJob will trigger a backup on each scheduled slot by creating a BackupSession object.

Now, wait for a schedule to appear. Run the following command to watch for a BackupSession object,

❯ kubectl get backupsessions.stash.appscode.com -n demo -w
NAME                          INVOKER-TYPE          INVOKER-NAME       PHASE       AGE
sample-es-backup-1612440003   BackupConfiguration   sample-es-backup               0s
sample-es-backup-1612440003   BackupConfiguration   sample-es-backup   Running     0s
sample-es-backup-1612440003   BackupConfiguration   sample-es-backup   Succeeded   54s

Here, the phase Succeeded means that the backup process has been completed successfully.

Verify Backup

Now, we are going to verify whether the backed up data is present in the backend or not. Once a backup is completed, Stash will update the respective Repository object to reflect the backup completion. Check that the repository gcs-repo has been updated by the following command,

❯ kubectl get repository -n demo gcs-repo
NAME       INTEGRITY   SIZE        SNAPSHOT-COUNT   LAST-SUCCESSFUL-BACKUP   AGE
gcs-repo   true        3.801 KiB   1                64s                      3m46s

Now, if we navigate to the GCS bucket, we will see the backed up data has been stored in demo/sample-es directory as specified by the .spec.backend.gcs.prefix field of the Repository object.

Backup data in GCS Bucket
Fig: Backup data in GCS Bucket

Note: Stash keeps all the backed up data encrypted. So, data in the backend will not make any sense until they are decrypted.

Restore

If you have followed the previous sections properly, you should have a successful backup of your Elasticsearch database. Now, we are going to show how you can restore the database from the backed up data.

Restore into the same Elasticsearch

You can restore your data into the same database you have backed up from or into a different database in the same cluster or a different cluster. In this section, we are going to show you how to restore in the same database which may be necessary when you have accidentally deleted any data from the running database.

Temporarily pause backup

At first, let’s stop taking any further backup of the database so that no backup runs after we delete the sample data. We are going to pause the BackupConfiguration object. Stash will stop taking any further backup when the BackupConfiguration is paused.

Let’s pause the sample-es-backup BackupConfiguration,

❯ kubectl patch backupconfiguration -n demo sample-es-backup --type="merge" --patch='{"spec": {"paused": true}}'
backupconfiguration.stash.appscode.com/sample-es-backup patched

Verify that the BackupConfiguration has been paused,

❯ kubectl get backupconfiguration -n demo sample-es-backup
NAME               TASK                            SCHEDULE      PAUSED   AGE
sample-es-backup   elasticsearch-backup-7.3.2   */5 * * * *   true     12m

Notice the PAUSED column. Value true for this field means that the BackupConfiguration has been paused.

Stash will also suspend the respective CronJob.

❯ kubectl get cronjob -n demo
NAME                            SCHEDULE      SUSPEND   ACTIVE   LAST SCHEDULE   AGE
stash-backup-sample-es-backup   */5 * * * *   True      0        5m19s           12m

Simulate Disaster

Now, let’s simulate an accidental deletion scenario. Here, we are going to delete the products and companies indexes that we had created earlier.

# Delete "products" index
❯ curl -XDELETE --user "$USER:$PASSWORD" "http://localhost:9200/products?pretty"
{
  "acknowledged" : true
}

# Delete "companies" index
❯ curl -XDELETE --user "$USER:$PASSWORD" "http://localhost:9200/companies?pretty"
{
  "acknowledged" : true
}

Now, let’s verify that the indexes have been deleted from the database,

❯ curl -XGET --user "$USER:$PASSWORD" "http://localhost:9200/_cat/indices?v&s=index&pretty"
health status index uuid pri rep docs.count docs.deleted store.size pri.store.size

So, we can see our sample-es database does not have any indexes. In the next section, we are going to restore the deleted indexes from backed up data.

Create RestoreSession

To restore the database, you have to create a RestoreSession object pointing to the AppBinding of the targeted database.

Here, is the YAML of the RestoreSession object that we are going to use for restoring our sample-es database.

apiVersion: stash.appscode.com/v1beta1
kind: RestoreSession
metadata:
  name: sample-es-restore
  namespace: demo
spec:
  task:
    name: elasticsearch-restore-7.3.2
  repository:
    name: gcs-repo
  target:
    ref:
      apiVersion: appcatalog.appscode.com/v1alpha1
      kind: AppBinding
      name: sample-es
  interimVolumeTemplate:
    metadata:
      name: sample-es-restore-tmp-storage
    spec:
      accessModes: [ "ReadWriteOnce" ]
      storageClassName: "standard"
      resources:
        requests:
          storage: 1Gi
  rules:
  - snapshots: [latest]

Here,

  • .spec.task.name specifies the name of the Task object that specifies the necessary Functions and their execution order to restore an Elasticsearch database.
  • .spec.repository.name specifies the Repository object that holds the backend information where our backed up data has been stored.
  • .spec.target.ref refers to the respective AppBinding of the sample-es database.
  • spec.interimVolumeTemplate specifies a PVC template that will be used by Stash to hold the restored data temporarily before injecting it into the database.
  • .spec.rules specifies that we are restoring data from the latest backup snapshot of the database.

Let’s create the RestoreSession object object we have shown above,

❯ kubectl apply -f https://github.com/stashed/docs/raw/v2021.04.12/docs/addons/elasticsearch/kubedb/examples/restore/restoresession.yaml
restoresession.stash.appscode.com/sample-es-restore created

Once, you have created the RestoreSession object, Stash will create a restore Job. Run the following command to watch the phase of the RestoreSession object,

❯ kubectl get restoresession -n demo -w
NAME                REPOSITORY   PHASE       AGE
sample-es-restore   gcs-repo     Running     8s
sample-es-restore   gcs-repo     Running     24s
sample-es-restore   gcs-repo     Succeeded   24s
sample-es-restore   gcs-repo     Succeeded   25s

The Succeeded phase means that the restore process has been completed successfully.

Verify Restored Data

Now, it’s time to verify whether the actual data has been restored or not. At first, let’s verify that whether the indexes have been restored or not:

❯ curl -XGET --user "$USER:$PASSWORD" "http://localhost:9200/_cat/indices?v&s=index&pretty"
health status index     uuid                   pri rep docs.count docs.deleted store.size pri.store.size
green  open   companies 7UgxlL4wST6ZIAImxRVvzw   1   1          1            0     11.4kb          5.7kb
green  open   products  vb19PIneSL2zMTPvNEgm-w   1   1          2            0     10.8kb          5.4kb

So, we can see the indexes have been restored. Now, let’s verify the data of these indexes,

# Verify the data of the "products" index
❯ curl -XGET --user "$USER:$PASSWORD" "http://localhost:9200/products/_search?pretty"
{
  "took" : 3,
  "timed_out" : false,
  "_shards" : {
    "total" : 1,
    "successful" : 1,
    "skipped" : 0,
    "failed" : 0
  },
  "hits" : {
    "total" : {
      "value" : 2,
      "relation" : "eq"
    },
    "max_score" : 1.0,
    "hits" : [
      {
        "_index" : "products",
        "_type" : "_doc",
        "_id" : "vKDVgXcBa1PZYKwIDBjy",
        "_score" : 1.0,
        "_source" : {
          "name" : "Stash",
          "vendor" : "AppsCode Inc.",
          "description" : "Backup tool for Kubernetes workloads"
        }
      },
      {
        "_index" : "products",
        "_type" : "_doc",
        "_id" : "u6DUgXcBa1PZYKwI5xic",
        "_score" : 1.0,
        "_source" : {
          "name" : "KubeDB",
          "vendor" : "AppsCode Inc.",
          "description" : "Database Operator for Kubernetes"
        }
      }
    ]
  }
}

# Verify the data of "companies" index
❯ curl -XGET --user "$USER:$PASSWORD" "http://localhost:9200/companies/_search?pretty"
{
  "took" : 2,
  "timed_out" : false,
  "_shards" : {
    "total" : 1,
    "successful" : 1,
    "skipped" : 0,
    "failed" : 0
  },
  "hits" : {
    "total" : {
      "value" : 1,
      "relation" : "eq"
    },
    "max_score" : 1.0,
    "hits" : [
      {
        "_index" : "companies",
        "_type" : "_doc",
        "_id" : "vaDVgXcBa1PZYKwIMxhm",
        "_score" : 1.0,
        "_source" : {
          "name" : "AppsCode Inc.",
          "mission" : "Accelerate the transition to Containers by building a Kubernetes-native Data Platform",
          "products" : [
            "KubeDB",
            "Stash",
            "KubeVault",
            "Kubeform",
            "ByteBuilders"
          ]
        }
      }
    ]
  }
}

So, we can see that the data has been restored as well.

Resume Backup

Since our data has been restored successfully we can now resume our usual backup process. Resume the BackupConfiguration using following command,

❯ kubectl patch backupconfiguration -n demo sample-es-backup --type="merge" --patch='{"spec": {"paused": false}}'
backupconfiguration.stash.appscode.com/sample-es-backup patched

Verify that the BackupConfiguration has been resumed,

❯ kubectl get backupconfiguration -n demo sample-es-backup
NAME               TASK                         SCHEDULE      PAUSED   AGE
sample-es-backup   elasticsearch-backup-7.3.2   */5 * * * *   false    30m

Here, false in the PAUSED column means the backup has been resume successfully. The CronJob also should be resumed now.

❯ kubectl get cronjob -n demo
NAME                            SCHEDULE      SUSPEND   ACTIVE   LAST SCHEDULE   AGE
stash-backup-sample-es-backup   */5 * * * *   False     0        2m50s           30m

Here, False in the SUSPEND column means the CronJob is no longer suspended and will trigger in the next schedule.

Restore into a different Elasticsearch

Now, we are going to restore the backed up data into a different Elasticsearch of a different namespace. This time, we are going to use opendistro variant for Elasticsearch to demonstrate migration between the variants. You can use the same variant of Elasticsearch if you are not considering to migrate from your current variant.

We are going to restore the data into an Elasticsearch in restored namespace. If you already don’t have the namespace, let’s create it first.

❯ kubectl create ns restored
namespace/restored created

Install stash kubectl plugin

Now, we are going to use stash kubectl plugin to help us copying the Repository and backend Secret from our demo namespace into restored namespace. If you haven’t already installed the stash kubectl-plugin, please install it by following the guide from here.

Verify that the stash kubectl plugin has been installed properly,

❯ kubectl stash version
Version = v0.11.9
VersionStrategy = tag
GitTag = v0.11.9
GitBranch = HEAD
CommitHash = 05511503bab90e48514aed24457458456876dfcf
CommitTimestamp = 2021-01-21T22:12:04
GoVersion = go1.15.6
Compiler = gcc
Platform = linux/amd64

Copy Repository and backend Secret into the new namespace

Now, let’s copy the gcs-repo Repository into our new namespace using the stash kubectl plugin,

❯ kubectl stash cp repository gcs-repo -n demo --to-namespace=restored
I0208 19:51:43.950560  666626 copy_repository.go:58] Repository demo/gcs-repo uses Storage Secret demo/gcs-secret.
I0208 19:51:43.952899  666626 copy_secret.go:60] Copying Storage Secret demo to restored namespace
I0208 19:51:43.957204  666626 copy_secret.go:73] Secret demo/gcs-secret has been copied to restored namespace successfully.
I0208 19:51:43.967768  666626 copy_repository.go:75] Repository demo/gcs-repo has been copied to restored namespace successfully.

The above command will copy the gcs-repo Repository as well as the respective backend secret gcs-secret.

Let’s verify that the Repository has been copied into restored namespace,

❯ kubectl get repository -n restored
NAME       INTEGRITY   SIZE   SNAPSHOT-COUNT   LAST-SUCCESSFUL-BACKUP   AGE
gcs-repo                                                                2m9s

The command does not copy the status of the Repository. As a result, you will see the INTEGRITY, SIZE, SNAPSHOT-COUNT, and LAST-SUCCESSFUL-BACKUP fields are empty. Nothing to panic about here. Your actual data exist safely in the cloud bucket. The Repository just contains the connection information to that bucket.

Now, let’s verify that the backend secret has been copied as well,

❯ kubectl get secret -n restored
NAME                  TYPE                                  DATA   AGE
default-token-rd2v5   kubernetes.io/service-account-token   3      15m
gcs-secret            Opaque                                3      8m36s

As you can see, the backend secret gcs-secret also has been copied to restored namespace.

Deploy new Elasticsearch

Now, we are going to deploy an Elasticsearch into restored namespace. We are going to initialize this database from the backed up data of first Elasticsearch.

Here, is the YAML of the Elasticsearch object that we are going to create,

apiVersion: kubedb.com/v1alpha2
kind: Elasticsearch
metadata:
  name: init-sample
  namespace: restored
spec:
  version: opendistro-1.9.0-v1
  storageType: Durable
  init:
    waitForInitialRestore: true
  topology:
    master:
      suffix: master
      replicas: 1
      storage:
        storageClassName: "standard"
        accessModes:
        - ReadWriteOnce
        resources:
          requests:
            storage: 1Gi
    data:
      suffix: data
      replicas: 2
      storage:
        storageClassName: "standard"
        accessModes:
        - ReadWriteOnce
        resources:
          requests:
            storage: 1Gi
    ingest:
      suffix: client
      replicas: 2
      storage:
        storageClassName: "standard"
        accessModes:
        - ReadWriteOnce
        resources:
          requests:
            storage: 1Gi

Notice that this time, we are using opendistro-1.9.0-v1 variant for Elasticsearch. Also, notice that we have added an init section in the spec. Here, waitForInitialRestore: true tells KubeDB to wait for the first restore to complete before marking this database as ready to use.

Let’s deploy the above Elasticsearch,

❯ kubectl apply -f https://github.com/stashed/docs/raw/v2021.04.12/docs/addons/elasticsearch/kubedb/examples/elasticsearch/init_sample.yaml
elasticsearch.kubedb.com/init-sample created

Now, wait for the KubeDB to create all the nodes for this Elasticsearch. This time, Elasticsearch will get stuck in the Provisioning state because we haven’t completed the first restore yet.

You can check the condition of the Elasticsearch to verify whether we are ready to restore the database.

❯ kubectl get elasticsearch -n restored init-sample -o jsonpath='{.status.conditions}' | jq
[
  {
    "lastTransitionTime": "2021-02-08T14:13:22Z",
    "message": "The KubeDB operator has started the provisioning of Elasticsearch: restored/init-sample",
    "reason": "DatabaseProvisioningStartedSuccessfully",
    "status": "True",
    "type": "ProvisioningStarted"
  },
  {
    "lastTransitionTime": "2021-02-08T14:18:15Z",
    "message": "All desired replicas are ready.",
    "reason": "AllReplicasReady",
    "status": "True",
    "type": "ReplicaReady"
  },
  {
    "lastTransitionTime": "2021-02-08T14:19:22Z",
    "message": "The Elasticsearch: restored/init-sample is accepting client requests.",
    "observedGeneration": 3,
    "reason": "DatabaseAcceptingConnectionRequest",
    "status": "True",
    "type": "AcceptingConnection"
  },
  {
    "lastTransitionTime": "2021-02-08T14:19:33Z",
    "message": "The Elasticsearch: restored/init-sample is ready.",
    "observedGeneration": 3,
    "reason": "ReadinessCheckSucceeded",
    "status": "True",
    "type": "Ready"
  }
]

Here, check the last two conditions. We can see that the database has passed the readiness check from Ready conditions and it is accepting connections from AcceptingConnection condition. So, we are good to start restoring into this database.

KubeDB has created an AppBinding for this database. Let’s verify that the AppBinding has been created,

❯ kubectl get appbindings.appcatalog.appscode.com -n restored
NAME          TYPE                       VERSION   AGE
init-sample   kubedb.com/elasticsearch   7.8.0     21m

We are going to create a RestoreSession targeting this AppBinding to restore into this database.

Create RestoreSession for new Elasticsearch

Now, we have to create a RestoreSession object targeting the AppBinding of our init-sample database. Here, is the YAML of the RestoreSession that we are going to create,

apiVersion: stash.appscode.com/v1beta1
kind: RestoreSession
metadata:
  name: init-sample-restore
  namespace: restored
spec:
  task:
    name: elasticsearch-restore-7.3.2
  repository:
    name: gcs-repo
  target:
    ref:
      apiVersion: appcatalog.appscode.com/v1alpha1
      kind: AppBinding
      name: init-sample
  interimVolumeTemplate:
    metadata:
      name: init-sample-restore-tmp-storage
    spec:
      accessModes: [ "ReadWriteOnce" ]
      storageClassName: "standard"
      resources:
        requests:
          storage: 1Gi
  rules:
  - snapshots: [latest]

Let’s create the above RestoreSession,

❯ kubectl apply -f https://github.com/stashed/docs/raw/v2021.04.12/docs/addons/elasticsearch/kubedb/examples/restore/init_sample_restore.yaml
restoresession.stash.appscode.com/init-sample-restore created

Now, wait for the restore process to complete,

❯ kubectl get restoresession -n restored -w
NAME                  REPOSITORY   PHASE     AGE
init-sample-restore   gcs-repo     Running   4s
init-sample-restore   gcs-repo     Running   21s
init-sample-restore   gcs-repo     Succeeded   21s
init-sample-restore   gcs-repo     Succeeded   21s

Verify Restored Data in new Elasticsearch

Now, we are going to verify whether the data has been restored or not. At first let’s port-forward the respective Service for this Elasticsearch,

❯ kubectl get service -n restored
NAME                 TYPE        CLUSTER-IP      EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)    AGE
init-sample          ClusterIP   10.109.51.219   <none>        9200/TCP   54m
init-sample-master   ClusterIP   None            <none>        9300/TCP   54m
init-sample-pods     ClusterIP   None            <none>        9200/TCP   54m
❯ kubectl port-forward -n restored service/init-sample 9200
Forwarding from 127.0.0.1:9200 -> 9200
Forwarding from [::1]:9200 -> 9200

Now, let’s export the credentials of this Elasticsearch,

❯ kubectl get secret -n restored | grep init-sample
init-sample-admin-cred                            kubernetes.io/basic-auth              2      55m
init-sample-ca-cert                               kubernetes.io/tls                     2      55m
init-sample-config                                Opaque                                3      55m
init-sample-kibanaro-cred                         kubernetes.io/basic-auth              2      55m
init-sample-kibanaserver-cred                     kubernetes.io/basic-auth              2      55m
init-sample-logstash-cred                         kubernetes.io/basic-auth              2      55m
init-sample-readall-cred                          kubernetes.io/basic-auth              2      55m
init-sample-snapshotrestore-cred                  kubernetes.io/basic-auth              2      55m
init-sample-token-xgnrx                           kubernetes.io/service-account-token   3      55m
init-sample-transport-cert                        kubernetes.io/tls                     3      55m
stash-restore-init-sample-restore-0-token-vscdt   kubernetes.io/service-account-token   3      4m40s

Here, we are going to use the init-sample-admin-cred for connecting with the database. Let’s export the username and password keys.

❯ export USER=$(kubectl get secrets -n restored init-sample-admin-cred -o jsonpath='{.data.\username}' | base64 -d)
❯ export PASSWORD=$(kubectl get secrets -n restored init-sample-admin-cred -o jsonpath='{.data.\password}' | base64 -d)

Now, let’s verify whether the indexes have been restored or not.

❯ curl -XGET --user "$USER:$PASSWORD" "http://localhost:9200/_cat/indices?v&s=index&pretty"
health status index                uuid                   pri rep docs.count docs.deleted store.size pri.store.size
green  open   .opendistro_security _v-_YiJUReylNbUaIEXN8A   1   1          7            0     57.1kb         37.1kb
green  open   companies            XfSvxePuS7-lNq-gcd-bxg   1   1          1            0     11.1kb          5.5kb
green  open   products             pZYHzOp_TWK9bLaEU-uj8Q   1   1          2            0     10.5kb          5.2kb

So, we can see that our indexes have been restored successfully. Now, let’s verify the data of these indexes.

# Verify data of "products" index
❯ curl -XGET --user "$USER:$PASSWORD" "http://localhost:9200/products/_search?pretty"
{
  "took" : 634,
  "timed_out" : false,
  "_shards" : {
    "total" : 1,
    "successful" : 1,
    "skipped" : 0,
    "failed" : 0
  },
  "hits" : {
    "total" : {
      "value" : 2,
      "relation" : "eq"
    },
    "max_score" : 1.0,
    "hits" : [
      {
        "_index" : "products",
        "_type" : "_doc",
        "_id" : "u6DUgXcBa1PZYKwI5xic",
        "_score" : 1.0,
        "_source" : {
          "name" : "KubeDB",
          "vendor" : "AppsCode Inc.",
          "description" : "Database Operator for Kubernetes"
        }
      },
      {
        "_index" : "products",
        "_type" : "_doc",
        "_id" : "vKDVgXcBa1PZYKwIDBjy",
        "_score" : 1.0,
        "_source" : {
          "name" : "Stash",
          "vendor" : "AppsCode Inc.",
          "description" : "Backup tool for Kubernetes workloads"
        }
      }
    ]
  }
}

# Verify data of "companies" index
❯ curl -XGET --user "$USER:$PASSWORD" "http://localhost:9200/companies/_search?pretty"
{
  "took" : 5,
  "timed_out" : false,
  "_shards" : {
    "total" : 1,
    "successful" : 1,
    "skipped" : 0,
    "failed" : 0
  },
  "hits" : {
    "total" : {
      "value" : 1,
      "relation" : "eq"
    },
    "max_score" : 1.0,
    "hits" : [
      {
        "_index" : "companies",
        "_type" : "_doc",
        "_id" : "vaDVgXcBa1PZYKwIMxhm",
        "_score" : 1.0,
        "_source" : {
          "name" : "AppsCode Inc.",
          "mission" : "Accelerate the transition to Containers by building a Kubernetes-native Data Platform",
          "products" : [
            "KubeDB",
            "Stash",
            "KubeVault",
            "Kubeform",
            "ByteBuilders"
          ]
        }
      }
    ]
  }
}

So, we can see that the data of these indexes data has been restored too.

Restore into a different cluster

If you want to restore into a different cluster, you have to install KubeDB and Stash in the desired cluster. Then, you have to install Stash Elasticsearch addon in that cluster too. Then, you have to deploy the target database there. Once, the database is ready to accept connections, create the Repository, backend Secret, in the same namespace as the database of your desired cluster. Finally, create the RestoreSession object in the desired cluster pointing to the AppBinding of the targeted database of that cluster.

Cleanup

To cleanup the Kubernetes resources created by this tutorial, run:

# delete all reasources from "demo" namespace
kubectl delete -n demo backupconfiguration sample-es-backup
kubectl delete -n demo restoresession sample-es-restore
kubectl delete -n demo repository gcs-repo
kubectl delete -n demo secret gcs-repo
kubectl delete -n demo secret gcs-secret
kubectl delete -n demo elasticsearch  sample-es

# delete all reasources from "restored" namespace
kubectl delete -n restored restoresession init-sample-restore
kubectl delete -n restored repository gcs-repo
kubectl delete -n restored secret gcs-secret
kubectl delete -n restored elasticsearch  init-sample