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BackupSession

What is BackupSession

A BackupSession is a Kubernetes CustomResourceDefinition(CRD) which represents a backup run of the respective target(s) referenced by a BackupConfiguration/BackupBatch in a Kubernetes native way.

Stash operator creates a Kubernetes CronJob according to the schedule defined in a BackupConfiguration/BackupBatch. On each backup schedule, this CronJob creates a BackupSession object. It points to the respective BackupConfiguration/BackupBatch. The controller that runs inside backup sidecar (in case of backup via jobs, it is stash operator itself) watches this BackupSession object and starts taking backup instantly.

You can also create a BackupSession object manually to trigger backup at any time.

BackupSession CRD Specification

Like any official Kubernetes resource, a BackupSession has TypeMeta, ObjectMeta and Spec , Status sections.

A sample BackupSession created for backing up a WordPress Application and it’s components' is shown below,

apiVersion: stash.appscode.com/v1beta1
kind: BackupSession
metadata:
  creationTimestamp: "2020-07-25T17:41:28Z"
  labels:
    app: stash
    stash.appscode.com/invoker-name: wordpress-backup
    stash.appscode.com/invoker-type: BackupBatch
  name: wordpress-backup-1578458376
  namespace: demo
spec:
  invoker:
    apiGroup: stash.appscode.com
    kind: BackupBatch
    name: wordpress-backup
status:
  conditions:
  - lastTransitionTime: "2020-07-25T17:41:31Z"
    message: Repository exist in the backend.
    reason: BackendRepositoryFound
    status: "True"
    type: BackendRepositoryInitialized
  - lastTransitionTime: "2020-07-25T17:41:48Z"
    message: Successfully applied retention policy.
    reason: SuccessfullyAppliedRetentionPolicy
    status: "True"
    type: RetentionPolicyApplied
  - lastTransitionTime: "2020-07-25T17:41:50Z"
    message: Repository integrity verification succeeded.
    reason: SuccessfullyVerifiedRepositoryIntegrity
    status: "True"
    type: RepositoryIntegrityVerified
  - lastTransitionTime: "2020-07-25T17:41:50Z"
    message: Successfully pushed repository metrics.
    reason: SuccessfullyPushedRepositoryMetrics
    status: "True"
    type: RepositoryMetricsPushed
  phase: Succeeded
  sessionDuration: 22.575920065s
  targets:
  - phase: Succeeded
    preBackupActions:
    - InitializeBackendRepository
    ref:
      apiVersion: apps/v1
      kind: Deployment
      name: wordpress
    stats:
    - duration: 831.018039ms
      hostname: app
      phase: Succeeded
      snapshots:
      - fileStats:
          modifiedFiles: 0
          newFiles: 1
          totalFiles: 1
          unmodifiedFiles: 0
        name: b54ee4a0
        path: /var/www/html
        processingTime: "0:00"
        totalSize: 0 B
        uploaded: 711 B
    totalHosts: 1
  - phase: Succeeded
    postBackupActions:
    - ApplyRetentionPolicy
    - VerifyRepositoryIntegrity
    - SendRepositoryMetrics
    ref:
      apiVersion: appcatalog.appscode.com/v1alpha1
      kind: AppBinding
      name: wordpress-mysql
    stats:
    - duration: 1.147010638s
      hostname: db
      phase: Succeeded
      snapshots:
      - fileStats:
          modifiedFiles: 0
          newFiles: 1
          totalFiles: 1
          unmodifiedFiles: 0
        name: b30beb44
        path: dumpfile.sql
        processingTime: "0:00"
        totalSize: 0 B
        uploaded: 3.408 MiB
    totalHosts: 1

Here, we are going to describe the various sections of a BackupSession object.

BackupSession Metadata

metadata.name

metadata.name indicates the name of the BackupSession. This name is automatically generated by respective CronJob and it follows the following pattern: <BackupConfiguration/BackupBatch name>-<creation timestamp in Unix epoch seconds>.

metadata.namespace

metadata.namespace indicates the name of the BackupSession. It is the same as the namespace of respective BackupConfiguration/BackupBatch object.

metadata.labels

metadata.labels holds respective BackupConfiguration/BackupBatch kind and name as a label. The stash backup sidecar container use this label to watch only the BackupSessions of that BackupConfiguration/BackupBatch.

If you create BackupSession manually to trigger a backup instantly, make sure that you have added stash.appscode.com/invoker-type: <BackupConfiguration/BackupBatch kind> and stash.appscode.com/invoker-name: <BackupConfiguration/BackupBatch name> label to your BackupSession. Otherwise, it will not trigger backup for workloads (those resources that are backed up using sidecar).

BackupSession Spec

A BackupSession object has the following fields in the spec section:

spec.invoker

spec.invoker specifies the apiGroup, kind, and name of the respective object which is responsible for invoking this backup session.

BackupSession Status

.status section of BackupSession shows stats and progress of backup process in this session.A backup sidecar container or job updates the respective fields under .status section after it completes its task. .status section consists of the following fields:

status.phase

status.phase indicates the overall phase of the backup process for this BackupSession. status.phase will be Succeeded only if the phase of all targets is Succeeded. If any of the targets fail to complete its backup, status.phase will be Failed.

status.sessionDuration

status.sessionDuration indicates the total time taken to complete the backup of all targets in this session.

status.conditions

status.conditions shows the conditions of different operations/steps of the backup process. The following conditions are set by the Stash operator on a BackupSession.

Condition Type Usage
BackendRepositoryInitialized Indicates whether the backend repository was initialized or not.
RetentionPolicyApplied Indicates whether the retention policies were applied or not.
RepositoryIntegrityVerified Indicates whether the repository integrity check succeeded or not.
RepositoryMetricsPushed Indicates whether the Repository metrics for this backup session were pushed or not.
GlobalPreBackupHookSucceeded Indicates whether the global PreBackupHook was executed successfully or not. Only available during backup using BackupBatch.
GlobalPostBackupHookSucceeded Indicates whether the global PostBackupHook was executed successfully or not. Only available during backup BackupBatch.

status.targets

status.targets field contains an array of the status of the individual target for a backup run. Each target’s status field consists of the following sub-fields:

  • totalHosts : Not every pod or replica of a target is subject to backup. Thus, we refer those entities that are subject to backup as a host. totalHosts specifies the total number of hosts of the target that will be backed up for this BackupSession. For more details on how many hosts will be backed up for which types of workload, please visit here.

  • preBackupActions : Specifies a list of actions that the backup process should execute before taking backup. For example, the backend repository must be initialized by one of the targets before taking backup. Stash automatically assigned which target should execute this action. The preBackupActions should not be confused with preBackup hook. The hooks are meant to be configured by the users where the preBackupActions are meant to be configured by Stash itself.

  • postBackupActions : Similar to preBackupActions, it specifies a list of actions that a backup process should execute after taking the backup. For example, when all the targets complete their backup, one target must apply retention policy into the repository. Stash automatically selects which target should execute these postBackupActions.

  • ref : ref refers to the target whose backup stats has been presented by this array entry.

  • phase : phase indicates the backup phase of the target. phase will be Succeeded only if the phase of all hosts are Succeeded. If any of the hosts fail to complete its backup, phase will be Failed.

  • stats : stats section is an array of backup statistics about individual hosts of the target. Each host adds its statistics in this array after completing its backup process. Each stats entry consists of the following fields:

    • hostname: hostname indicates the name of the host.
    • phase: phase indicates the backup phase of this host.
    • duration: duration indicates the total time taken to complete backup for this host.
    • snapshots: Stash creates one snapshot for each targeted file paths specified in spec.target.paths field of BackupConfiguration object. The snapshots field holds statistics of each of these individual snapshots. Each snapshot statistics has the following fields:
    • name: name indicates the name of the snapshot.
    • path: path indicates the file path that was backed up in this snapshot.
    • totalSize: totalSize indicates the size of data to backup from this path.
    • uploaded: uploaded indicates the size of the data that was uploaded to the backend for this snapshot. This could be much smaller than size if some data was already uploaded in the backend in previous backup sessions.
    • processingTime: processingTime indicates the time taken to process the data of the target path.
    • fileStats: fileStats field show statics of files that were backed up in this snapshot.
      • totalFiles: totalFiles shows the total number of files that were backed up in this snapshot.
      • newFiles: newFiles shows the number of new files that were backed up in this snapshot.
      • modifiedFiles: modifiedFiles shows the number of files that were modified since last backup of this directory.
      • unmodifiedFiles: unmodifiedFiles shows the number of files that haven’t changed since the last backup of this path.
      • error: error shows the reason for failure if the backup process failed for this host.

Hosts of a backup process

Stash uses two different models for backup depending on the target type. It uses sidecar model for Kubernetes workloads and job model for the rest of the targets. In the sidecar model, Stash injects a sidecar inside the targeted workload and the sidecar is responsible for taking backup. In the job model, Stash launches a job to take a backup of the target.

Stash uses an identifier called host to separate the backed up data of different subjects in the backed. This host identification process depends on the backup model and the target types. The backup strategy and host identification strategy for different types of the target is explained below.

Kubernetes Workloads:

Stash uses the sidecar model to backup Kubernetes workloads. However, not every sidecar takes backup. How many sidecars will take backup depends on the type of the workload. We can divide them into the following categories:

  • Deployment, ReplicaSet, and ReplicationController: For these types of stateless workloads, all the replicas mount the same volumes. So, taking backup from only one replica is enough. In this case, Stash uses a leader election to elect the leader pod. Only the sidecar of the leader pod takes backup. The alias provided in the BackupConfiguration/BackupBatch is used as a host identifier. If the alias was not provided, then it defaults to host-0. The total number of hosts for these types of workload is 1.
  • StatefulSet: Every replica of a StatefulSet mount different volumes. So, taking a backup from each replica is necessary. In this case, sidecar inside each replica takes backup. Stash identifies pod-0 as <alias>-0, pod-1 as <alias>-1, pod-2 as <alias>-2 and so on. If the alias was not provided in the BackupConfiguration/BackupBatch, then the host identifiers are generated as host-0, host-1, and host-2 etc. The total number of hosts for a StatefulSet is the number of replicas.
  • DaemonSet: Daemon replicas on every node may contain different data. So, taking a backup of each daemon pod is necessary. In this case, sidecar inside each daemon pod takes backup. Stash considers the individual daemon pod as a separate host and the host identifiers are generated as <alias>-<node name>. The total number of hosts for a DaemonSet is the number of daemon pod running in the cluster.

Stand-alone PVC:

Stash uses the job model to backup a stand-alone PVC. Stash launches a job to backup the targeted PVC. The alias provided in the BackupConfiguration/BackupBatch is used as the host identifier. If the alias was not provided, it defaults to host-0. The total number of hosts for a stand-alone PVC backup is 1.

Databases:

Stash uses the job model to backup a database. Stash launches a job to backup the targeted database. In this case, the number of hosts depends on the database type.

  • Stand-alone database: For stand-alone database, the backup target is identified by the alias and the total number of hosts is 1.
  • Replicated cluster: For replicated clustered databases such as MongoDB ReplicaSet, all the replicas contain the same data. In this case, taking a backup of only one replica is enough. This replica is identified by the alias and the total number of hosts is 1.
  • Sharded cluster: For the sharded database cluster, Stash takes a backup of all shards. Hence, the number of hosts for a sharded database is the number of shards and they are identified as <alias>-0, <alias>-1, <alias>-2, etc. However, the number of hosts may increase based on the database type.

VolumeSnapshot:

Stash uses the job model for taking volume snapshots. Each volume is considered as different hosts and they are identified by their name. Hence, the number of total hosts for VolumeSnapshot is the number of targeted volumes. However, since VolumeSnapshot is handled by the respective CSI driver, the host identifier does not play any role to separate their data.

Next Steps

  • Learn how backup of workloads data works from here.
  • Learn how backup of databases works from here.
  • Learn how backup stand alone PVC works from here.