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Backup & Restore an Etcd Cluster with Basic Auth Enabled

Stash v2022.05.12 supports backup and restoration of Etcd database. This guide will show you how you can take backup & restore your Etcd database using Stash.

Before You Begin

  • At first, you need to have a Kubernetes cluster, and the kubectl command-line tool must be configured to communicate with your cluster.
  • Install Stash Enterprise in your cluster following the steps here.
  • If you are not familiar with how Stash backup and restore Etcd database, please check the following guide here.

You have to be familiar with following custom resources:

To keep things isolated, we are going to use a separate namespace called demo throughout this tutorial. Create demo namespace if you haven’t created that already.

$ kubectl create ns demo
namespace/demo created

Note: YAML files used in this tutorial are stored here.

Prepare Etcd

In this section, we are going to deploy an Etcd cluster. Then, we will insert some sample data into it.

Deploy Etcd

At first, let’s deploy an Etcd cluster. Here, we will use a StatefulSet and a Service to deploy an Etcd cluster consisting of three members. The Service is used for handling peer communications and client requests.

Here, is the sample YAMLs that we are going to use to deploy the Etcd cluster,

apiVersion: v1
kind: Service
metadata:
  namespace: demo
  name: etcd
spec:
  clusterIP: None
  ports:
    - port: 2379
      name: client
    - port: 2380
      name: peer
  selector:
    app: etcd
---
apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: StatefulSet
metadata:
  name: etcd
  namespace: demo
  labels:
    app: etcd
spec:
  serviceName: etcd
  replicas: 3
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      app: etcd
  template:
    metadata:
      name: etcd
      labels:
        app: etcd
    spec:
      containers:
        - name: etcd
          image: gcr.io/etcd-development/etcd:v3.5.0
          ports:
            - containerPort: 2379
              name: client
            - containerPort: 2380
              name: peer
          volumeMounts:
            - name: data
              mountPath: /var/run/etcd
          command:
            - /bin/sh
            - -c
            - |
              PEERS="etcd-0=http://etcd-0.etcd:2380,etcd-1=http://etcd-1.etcd:2380,etcd-2=http://etcd-2.etcd:2380"
              exec etcd --name ${HOSTNAME} \
                --listen-peer-urls http://0.0.0.0:2380 \
                --listen-client-urls http://0.0.0.0:2379 \
                --initial-cluster etcd-0=http://etcd-0.etcd:2380,etcd-1=http://etcd-1.etcd:2380,etcd-2=http://etcd-2.etcd:2380 \
                --initial-cluster-token etcd-cluster-1 \
                --advertise-client-urls http://${HOSTNAME}.etcd:2379 \
                --initial-advertise-peer-urls http://${HOSTNAME}.etcd:2380 \
                --data-dir /var/run/etcd              
  volumeClaimTemplates:
    - metadata:
        name: data
        namespace: demo
      spec:
        storageClassName: standard
        accessModes: ["ReadWriteOnce"]
        resources:
          requests:
            storage: 1Gi

Let’s deploy the Etcd cluster we have shown above,

$ kubectl apply -f https://github.com/stashed/docs/tree/v2022.05.12/docs/addons/etcd/basic-auth/examples/etcd.yaml
service/etcd created
statefulset.apps/etcd created

Now, let’s wait for the database pods etcd-0, etcd-1, and etcd-2 to go into Running state,

❯ kubectl get pods -n demo --selector=app=etcd

NAME     READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
etcd-0   1/1     Running   0          11s
etcd-1   1/1     Running   0          10s
etcd-2   1/1     Running   0          9s

Once the database pods are in Running state, verify that the Etcd cluster is ready to accept connections. Let’s exec into the etcd-0 pod and check cluster’s health.

❯ kubectl exec -it -n demo etcd-0 -- /bin/sh
127.0.0.1:2379> etcdctl endpoint health
127.0.0.1:2379 is healthy: successfully committed proposal: took = 1.258639ms

We can see from the above output that our Etcd cluster is ready to accept connections.

Enabling basic authentication

To use basic authentication in Etcd cluster, we need to create a user using etcdctl. We will add one special user, root and grant this user root role. The root role has global read-write access and permission accross an Etcd database by default.

Let’s exec into etcd-0 pod and enable basic authentication,

❯ kubectl exec -it -n demo etcd-0 -- /bin/sh

127.0.0.1:2379> etcdctl user add root
Password of root: 
Type password of root again for confirmation: 
User root created

127.0.0.1:2379> etcdctl user grant-role root root
Role root is granted to user root

127.0.0.1:2379> etcdctl auth enable
Authentication Enabled
127.0.0.1:2379> exit

Here, we have used [email protected] as password for the user we have created above.

Insert Sample Data

Now, we are going to exec into any of the database pods and insert some sample data.

Let’s exec into the etcd-0 pod for inserting sample data. We are going to export the username and password as an environment variable.

❯ kubectl exec -it -n demo etcd-0 -- /bin/sh

127.0.0.1:2379> export USER=root
127.0.0.1:2379> export PASSWORD=[email protected] 

127.0.0.1:2379> etcdctl --user $USER:$PASSWORD put foo bar
OK
127.0.0.1:2379> etcdctl --user $USER:$PASSWORD put foo2 bar2
OK
127.0.0.1:2379> etcdctl --user $USER:$PASSWORD put foo3 bar3
OK

# Verify that the data has been inserted successfully
127.0.0.1:2379> etcdctl --user $USER:$PASSWORD get --prefix foo
foo
bar
foo2
bar2
foo3
bar3
127.0.0.1:2379> exit

We have successfully deployed an Etcd cluster and inserted some sample data into it. In the subsequent sections, we are going to backup these data using Stash.

Prepare for Backup

In this section, we are going to prepare the necessary resources (e.g., database connection information, backend information, etc.) before backup.

Ensure Etcd Addon

When you install Stash Enterprise edition, it will automatically install all the official addons. Make sure that Etcd addon has been installed properly using the following command.

❯ kubectl get tasks.stash.appscode.com | grep etcd
etcd-backup-3.5.0             18m
etcd-restore-3.5.0            18m

This addon should be able to take backup of the databases with matching major versions as discussed in Addon Version Compatibility.

Create Secret

You can skip this section if you don’t have basic authentication enabled in your Etcd cluster.

Now, we have to create a Secret with the access credentials to our Etcd database. Here, is the YAML of the Secret we are going to create,

apiVersion: v1
kind: Secret
metadata:
  name: etcd-basic-auth
  namespace: demo
type: Opaque
stringData:
  username: root
  password: [email protected]

Let’s create the etcd-basic-auth Secret we have shown above,

$ kubectl apply -f https://github.com/stashed/docs/tree/v2022.05.12/docs/addons/etcd/basic-auth/examples/etcd-secret.yaml
secret/etcd-basic-auth created

Create AppBinding

Stash needs to know how to connect with the Etcd cluster. An AppBinding exactly provides this information. It holds the Service and Secret information of the Etcd cluster. You have to point to the respective AppBinding as a target of backup instead of the Etcd cluster itself.

Here is the YAML of the AppBinding that we are going to create for the Etcd cluster we have deployed earlier.

apiVersion: appcatalog.appscode.com/v1alpha1
kind: AppBinding
metadata:
  name: etcd-appbinding
  namespace: demo
spec:
  clientConfig:
    service:
      name: etcd
      port: 2379
      scheme: http
  secret:
    name: etcd-basic-auth
  type: etcd
  version: 3.5.0

Here,

  • .spec.clientConfig.Service specifies the Service information to use to connects with the database client.
  • .spec.secret specifies the name of the Secret that holds necessary credentials to access the database. If your Etcd database is not using authentication, then don’t provide this field.
  • .spec.type specifies the type of the database.

Let’s create the AppBinding we have shown above,

$ kubectl apply -f https://github.com/stashed/docs/tree/v2022.05.12/docs/addons/etcd/basic-auth/examples/appbinding.yaml
appbinding.appcatalog.appscode.com/etcd-appbinding created

Prepare Backend

We are going to store our backed up data into a GCS bucket. So, we need to create a Secret with GCS credentials and a Repository object with the bucket information. If you want to use a different backend, please read the respective backend configuration doc from here.

Create Storage Secret:

At first, let’s create a secret called gcs-secret with access credentials to our desired GCS bucket,

$ echo -n 'changeit' > RESTIC_PASSWORD
$ echo -n '<your-project-id>' > GOOGLE_PROJECT_ID
$ cat downloaded-sa-key.json > GOOGLE_SERVICE_ACCOUNT_JSON_KEY
$ kubectl create secret generic -n demo gcs-secret \
    --from-file=./RESTIC_PASSWORD \
    --from-file=./GOOGLE_PROJECT_ID \
    --from-file=./GOOGLE_SERVICE_ACCOUNT_JSON_KEY
secret/gcs-secret created

Create Repository:

Now, create a Repository object with the information of your desired bucket. Below is the YAML of Repository object we are going to create,

apiVersion: stash.appscode.com/v1alpha1
kind: Repository
metadata:
  name: gcs-repo
  namespace: demo
spec:
  backend:
    gcs:
      bucket: stash-testing
      prefix: /demo/etcd/basic-auth-backup
    storageSecretName: gcs-secret

Let’s create the Repository we have shown above,

$ kubectl create -f https://github.com/stashed/docs/raw/v2022.05.12/docs/addons/etcd/basic-auth/examples/repository.yaml
repository.stash.appscode.com/gcs-repo created

Now, we are ready to backup our data into our desired backend.

Backup

To schedule a backup, we have to create a BackupConfiguration object targeting the respective AppBinding of our Etcd cluster. Then Stash will create a CronJob to periodically backup the database.

Create BackupConfiguration

Below, is the YAML for BackupConfiguration object we are going to use to backup the Etcd cluster we have deployed earlier.

apiVersion: stash.appscode.com/v1beta1
kind: BackupConfiguration
metadata:
  name: etcd-backup
  namespace: demo
spec:
  schedule: "*/5 * * * *"
  task:
    name: etcd-backup-3.5.0
  repository:
    name: gcs-repo
  target:
    ref:
      apiVersion: appcatalog.appscode.com/v1alpha1
      kind: AppBinding
      name: etcd-appbinding 
  retentionPolicy:
    name: keep-last-5
    keepLast: 5
    prune: true

Here,

  • .spec.schedule specifies that we want to backup the database at 5 minutes intervals.
  • .spec.task.name specifies the name of the Task object that specifies the necessary Functions and their execution order to backup an Etcd database.
  • .spec.repository.name specifies the Repository CR name we have created earlier with backend information.
  • .spec.target.ref refers to the AppBinding object that holds the connection information of our targeted database.
  • .spec.retentionPolicy specifies a policy indicating how we want to cleanup the old backups.

Let’s create the BackupConfiguration object we have shown above,

$ kubectl create -f https://github.com/stashed/docs/raw/v2022.05.12/docs/addons/etcd/basic-auth/examples/backupconfiguration.yaml
backupconfiguration.stash.appscode.com/etcd-backup created

Verify Backup Setup Successful

If everything goes well, the phase of the BackupConfiguration should be Ready. The Ready phase indicates that the backup setup is successful. Let’s verify the Phase of the BackupConfiguration,

$ kubectl get backupconfiguration -n demo
NAME          TASK                SCHEDULE      PAUSED   PHASE      AGE
etcd-backup   etcd-backup-3.5.0   */5 * * * *            Ready      11s

Verify CronJob

Stash will create a CronJob with the schedule specified in spec.schedule field of BackupConfiguration object.

Verify that the CronJob has been created using the following command,

❯ kubectl get cronjob -n demo
NAME                               SCHEDULE      SUSPEND   ACTIVE   LAST SCHEDULE   AGE
stash-trigger-etcd-backup          */5 * * * *   False     0        <none>          14s

Wait for BackupSession

The stash-trigger-etcd-backup CronJob will trigger a backup on each scheduled slot by creating a BackupSession object.

Now, wait for a schedule to appear. Run the following command to watch for a BackupSession object,

❯ kubectl get backupsession -n demo -w
NAME                             INVOKER-TYPE          INVOKER-NAME          PHASE       DURATION          AGE
etcd-backup-1634538902           BackupConfiguration   etcd-backup                       0s
etcd-backup-1634538902           BackupConfiguration   etcd-backup           Running                       0s
etcd-backup-1634538902           BackupConfiguration   etcd-backup           Succeeded   39s               39s

Here, the phase Succeeded means that the backup process has been completed successfully.

Verify Backup

Now, we are going to verify whether the backed up data is present in the backend or not. Once a backup is completed, Stash will update the respective Repository object to reflect the backup completion. Check that the repository gcs-repo has been updated by the following command,

❯ kubectl get repository -n demo
NAME       INTEGRITY   SIZE   SNAPSHOT-COUNT   LAST-SUCCESSFUL-BACKUP   AGE
gcs-repo   true        93 B   1                2m1s                     24m

Now, if we navigate to the GCS bucket, we will see the backed up data has been stored in /demo/etcd/basic-auth-backup directory as specified by .spec.backend.gcs.prefix field of the Repository object.

Backup data in GCS Bucket
Fig: Backup data in GCS Bucket

Note: Stash keeps all the backed up data encrypted. So, data in the backend will not make any sense until they are decrypted.

Restore Etcd

If you have followed the previous sections properly, you should have a successful backup of your Etcd cluster. Now, we are going to show how you can restore the database from the backed up data.

Restore Into the Same Etcd Cluster

You can restore your data into the same Etcd cluster you have taken backup from or into a different Etcd cluster. In this section, we are going to show you how to restore data in the same Etcd cluster which maybe necessary when you have accidentally deleted any data from the running cluster.

Temporarily Pause Backup

At first, let’s stop taking any further backup of the Etcd cluster so that no backup runs after we delete the sample data. We are going to pause the BackupConfiguration object. Stash will stop taking any further backup when the BackupConfiguration is paused.

Let’s pause the etcd-backup BackupConfiguration,

$ kubectl patch backupconfiguration -n demo etcd-backup --type="merge" --patch='{"spec": {"paused": true}}'
backupconfiguration.stash.appscode.com/etcd-backup patched

Verify that the BackupConfiguration has been paused,

❯ kubectl get backupconfiguration -n demo etcd-backup
NAME                  TASK                 SCHEDULE      PAUSED   PHASE   AGE
etcd-backup           etcd-backup-3.5.0    */5 * * * *   true     Ready   22m

Notice the PAUSED column. Value true for this field means that the BackupConfiguration has been paused.

Stash will also suspend the respective CronJob.

❯ kubectl get cronjob -n demo
NAME                               SCHEDULE      SUSPEND   ACTIVE   LAST SCHEDULE   AGE
stash-trigger-etcd-backup          */5 * * * *   True      0        6m15s           23m

Simulate Disaster

Now, let’s simulate an accidental deletion scenario. Here, we are going to exec into the etcd-0 database pod and delete the sample data we have inserted earlier.

❯ kubectl exec -it -n demo etcd-0 -- /bin/sh
127.0.0.1:2379> export USER=root
127.0.0.1:2379> export PASSWORD=[email protected] 

127.0.0.1:2379> etcdctl --user $USER:$PASSWORD  del foo
1
127.0.0.1:2379> etcdctl --user $USER:$PASSWORD  del foo2
1
127.0.0.1:2379> etcdctl --user $USER:$PASSWORD  del foo3
1
# verify that the sample data has been deleted
127.0.0.1:2379> etcdctl --user $USER:$PASSWORD  get --prefix foo
(nil)
127.0.0.1:2379> exit

Create RestoreSession

To restore the database, you have to create a RestoreSession object pointing to the AppBinding of the targeted database.

Here, is the YAML of the RestoreSession object that we are going to use for restoring our Etcd database cluster.

apiVersion: stash.appscode.com/v1beta1
kind: RestoreSession
metadata:
  name: etcd-restore
  namespace: demo
spec:
  task:
    name: etcd-restore-3.5.0 
    params:
      - name: initialCluster
        value:  "etcd-0=http://etcd-0.etcd:2380,etcd-1=http://etcd-1.etcd:2380,etcd-2=http://etcd-2.etcd:2380"
      - name: initialClusterToken
        value: "etcd-cluster-1"
      - name: dataDir
        value: "/var/run/etcd"
      - name: workloadKind
        value: "StatefulSet"
      - name: workloadName
        value: "etcd"
  repository:
    name: gcs-repo
  target:
    ref:
      apiVersion: appcatalog.appscode.com/v1alpha1
      kind: AppBinding
      name: etcd-appbinding 
  runtimeSettings:
    container:
      securityContext:
        runAsUser: 0
        runAsGroup: 0
  rules:
  - snapshots: [latest]

Here,

  • .spec.task.name specifies the name of the Task object that specifies the necessary Functions and their execution order to restore an Etcd database.
  • .spec.task.params refers to the names and values of the Params objects specifying necessary parameters and their values for restoring backup data into an Etcd cluster. We need to specify the folowing parameters,
    • initialcluster parameter refers to the initial cluster configuration of the Etcd cluster and it must be the same as the initial cluster configuration of the deployed Etcd cluster.
    • dataDir parameter refers to the datadir of the deployed Etcd cluster where the backed up data will get restored.
    • workloadKind parameter refers to the workload e.g. Pod/StatefulSet we have used to deploy the Etcd cluster.
    • workloadName parameter refers to the workload name we have used to deploy the Etcd cluster.
  • .spec.repository.name specifies the Repository object that holds the backend information where our backed up data has been stored.
  • .spec.target.ref refers to the respective AppBinding of the Etcd database.
  • .spec.rules specifies that we are restoring data from the latest backup snapshot of the database.
  • The restore Job need access to the respective volume of the Etcd database. As a result, we have to run the restore Job as the same user as the Etcd database or as root user. Here, we are running the restore Job as root user using spec.runtimeSettings.Container.securityContext section.

Let’s create the RestoreSession object object we have shown above,

$ kubectl apply -f https://github.com/stashed/docs/raw/v2022.05.12/docs/addons/etcd/basic-auth/examples/restoresession.yaml
restoresession.stash.appscode.com/etcd-restore created

Once, you have created the RestoreSession object, Stash will create a restore Job. Run the following command to watch the phase of the RestoreSession object,

❯ kubectl get restoresession -n demo -w
NAME                   REPOSITORY   PHASE     DURATION          AGE
etcd-restore           gcs-repo     Running                     9s
etcd-restore           gcs-repo     Running                     13s
etcd-restore           gcs-repo     Running                     72s
etcd-restore           gcs-repo     Succeeded                   72s
etcd-restore           gcs-repo     Succeeded  1m13s            72s

The Succeeded phase means that the restore process has been completed successfully.

Verify Restored Data

Now, let’s exec into the etcd-0 database pod and verify whether the actual data has been restored or not,

❯ kubectl exec -it -n demo etcd-0 -- /bin/sh

127.0.0.1:2379> export USER=root
127.0.0.1:2379> export PASSWORD=[email protected] 

127.0.0.1:2379> etcdctl --user $USER:$PASSWORD get --prefix foo
foo
bar
foo2
bar2
foo3
bar3
127.0.0.1:2379> exit

Hence, we can see from the above output that the deleted data has been restored successfully from the backup.

Resume Backup

Since our data has been restored successfully we can now resume our usual backup process. Resume the BackupConfiguration using following command,

❯ kubectl patch backupconfiguration -n demo etcd-backup --type="merge" --patch='{"spec": {"paused": false}}'
backupconfiguration.stash.appscode.com/etcd-backup patched

Verify that the BackupConfiguration has been resumed,

❯ kubectl get backupconfiguration -n demo etcd-backup
NAME                  TASK                 SCHEDULE      PAUSED   PHASE   AGE
etcd-backup           etcd-backup-3.5.0    */5 * * * *   false    Ready   4h54m

Here, false in the PAUSED column means the backup has been resumed successfully. The CronJob also should be resumed now.

❯ kubectl get cronjob -n demo
NAME                               SCHEDULE      SUSPEND   ACTIVE   LAST SCHEDULE   AGE
stash-trigger-etcd-backup          */5 * * * *   False     0        3m24s           4h54m

Here, False in the SUSPEND column means the CronJob is no longer suspended and will trigger in the next schedule.

Restore Into Different Database of the Same Namespace

If you want to restore the backed up data into a different Etcd cluster of the same namespace, you have to create another AppBinding pointing to the desired Etcd database. Then, you have to create the RestoreSession pointing to the new AppBinding.

Restore Into Different Namespace

If you want to restore into a different namespace of the same cluster, you have to create the Repository, backend Secret, AppBinding, in the desired namespace. You can use Stash kubectl plugin to easily copy the resources into a new namespace. Then, you have to create the RestoreSession object in the desired namespace pointing to the Repository, AppBinding of that namespace.

Restore Into Different Cluster

If you want to restore into a different cluster, you have to install Stash in the desired cluster. Then, you have to create the Repository, backend Secret, AppBinding, in the desired cluster. Finally, you have to create the RestoreSession object in the desired cluster pointing to the Repository, AppBinding of that cluster.

Cleanup

To cleanup the Kubernetes resources created by this tutorial, run:

kubectl delete -n demo backupconfiguration etcd-backup
kubectl delete -n demo restoresession etcd-restore
kubectl delete -n demo repository gcs-repo
kubectl delete -n demo appbinding etcd-appbinding
kubectl delete -n demo Secret etcd-basic-auth
kubectl delete -n demo Secret gcs-secret
# delete the Etcd cluster, Service, and PVCs
kubectl delete -f https://github.com/stashed/docs/tree/v2022.05.12/docs/addons/etcd/basic-auth/examples/etcd.yaml
kubectl delete pvc -n demo data-etcd-0 data-etcd-1 data-etcd-2