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Using Workload Identity with Stash on Google Kubernetes Engine (GKE)

This guide will show you how to use workload identity of Google Kubernetes Engine (GKE) with Stash. Here, we are going to backup a MariaDB database and store the backed up data into a GCS Bucket. Then, we are going to show how to restore this backed up data.

Before You Begin

To keep everything isolated, we are going to use a separate namespace called demo throughout this tutorial.

$ kubectl create ns demo
namespace/demo created

Prepare IAM Service Account

At first, let’s create an IAM service account which will contain the roles for accessing GCS Bucket,

$ gcloud iam service-accounts create storage-accessor-gsa \
    --project=sample-project

Let’s add the required roles to this service account for accessing the GCS bucket.

$ gcloud projects add-iam-policy-binding sample-project \
    --member "serviceAccount:[email protected]" \
    --role "roles/storage.objectAdmin"
$ gcloud projects add-iam-policy-binding sample-project \
    --member "serviceAccount:[email protected]" \
    --role "roles/storage.admin"

For GCS backend, if the bucket does not exist, Stash needs Storage Object Admin role permissions to create the bucket. For more details, please check the following guide.

Prepare MariaDB

In this section, we are going to deploy a MariaDB database using KubeDB. Then, we are going to insert some sample data into it.

Deploy MariaDB using KubeDB

At first, let’s deploy a MariaDB standalone database named sample-mariadb using KubeDB,

apiVersion: kubedb.com/v1alpha2
kind: MariaDB
metadata:
  name: sample-mariadb
  namespace: demo
spec:
  version: "10.5.8"
  replicas: 1
  storageType: Durable
  storage:
    storageClassName: "standard"
    accessModes:
    - ReadWriteOnce
    resources:
      requests:
        storage: 1Gi
  terminationPolicy: WipeOut
$ kubectl apply -f https://github.com/stashed/docs/raw/v2022.06.21/docs/guides/platforms/gke/examples/mariadb.yaml
mariadb.kubedb.com/sample-mariadb created

Now, wait for the database pod sample-mariadb-0 to go into Running state,

$ kubectl get pod -n demo sample-mariadb-0
NAME               READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
sample-mariadb-0   1/1     Running   0          29m

Once the database pod is in Running state, verify that the database is ready to accept the connections.

$ kubectl logs -n demo sample-mariadb-0
2021-02-22  9:41:37 0 [Note] Reading of all Master_info entries succeeded
2021-02-22  9:41:37 0 [Note] Added new Master_info '' to hash table
2021-02-22  9:41:37 0 [Note] mysqld: ready for connections.
Version: '10.5.8-MariaDB-1:10.5.8+maria~focal'  socket: '/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock'  port: 3306  mariadb.org binary distribution

From the above log, we can see the database is ready to accept connections.

Insert Sample Data

Now, we are going to exec into the database pod and create some sample data. The sample-mariadb object creates a secret containing the credentials of MariaDB and set them as pod’s Environment varibles MYSQL_ROOT_USERNAME and MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD.

Here, we are going to use the root user (MYSQL_ROOT_USERNAME) credential MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD to insert the sample data. Let’s exec into the database pod and insert some sample data,

$ kubectl exec -it -n demo sample-mariadb-0 -- bash
[email protected]:/ mysql -u${MYSQL_ROOT_USERNAME} -p${MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD}
Welcome to the MariaDB monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MariaDB connection id is 341
Server version: 10.5.8-MariaDB-1:10.5.8+maria~focal mariadb.org binary distribution

Copyright (c) 2000, 2018, Oracle, MariaDB Corporation Ab and others.

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.

# Let's create a database named "company"
MariaDB [(none)]>  create database company;
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.000 sec)

# Verify that the database has been created successfully
MariaDB [(none)]> show databases;
+--------------------+
| Database           |
+--------------------+
| company            |
| information_schema |
| mysql              |
| performance_schema |
+--------------------+
4 rows in set (0.001 sec)

# Now, let's create a table called "employee" in the "company" table
MariaDB [(none)]> create table company.employees ( name varchar(50), salary int);
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.018 sec)

# Verify that the table has been created successfully
MariaDB [(none)]> show tables in company;
+-------------------+
| Tables_in_company |
+-------------------+
| employees         |
+-------------------+
1 row in set (0.007 sec)

# Now, let's insert a sample row in the table
MariaDB [(none)]> insert into company.employees values ('John Doe', 5000);
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.003 sec)

# Insert another sample row
MariaDB [(none)]> insert into company.employees values ('James William', 7000);
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.002 sec)

# Verify that the rows have been inserted into the table successfully
MariaDB [(none)]>  select * from company.employees;
+---------------+--------+
| name          | salary |
+---------------+--------+
| John Doe      |   5000 |
| James William |   7000 |
+---------------+--------+
2 rows in set (0.001 sec)

MariaDB [(none)]> exit
Bye

We have successfully deployed a MariaDB database and inserted some sample data into it.

Prepare Backup

In this section, we are going to prepare the necessary resources (i.e. database connection information, backend information, etc.) before backup.

Verify Stash MariaDB Addon Installed

When you install the Stash Enterprise edition, it automatically installs all the official database addons. Verify that it has installed the MariaDB addons using the following command.

$ kubectl get tasks.stash.appscode.com | grep mariadb
mariadb-backup-10.5.8    35s
mariadb-restore-10.5.8   35s

Ensure AppBinding

Stash needs to know how to connect with the database. An AppBinding exactly provides this information. It holds the Service and Secret information of the database. You have to point to the respective AppBinding as a target of backup instead of the database itself.

Stash expect your database Secret to have username and password keys. If your database secret does not have them, the AppBinding can also help here. You can specify a secretTransforms section with the mapping between the current keys and the desired keys.

You don’t need to worry about appbindings if you are using KubeDB. It creates an appbinding containing the necessary informations when you deploy the database. Let’s ensure the appbinding create by KubeDB operator.

$ kubectl get appbinding -n demo 
NAME             TYPE                 VERSION   AGE
sample-mariadb   kubedb.com/mariadb   10.5.8      62m

We have a appbinding named same as database name sample-mariadb. We will use this later for connecting into this database.

Prepare Backend

We are going to store our backed up data into a GCS bucket. As we are using workload identity enabled cluster, we don’t need the GOOGLE_PROJECT_ID and GOOGLE_SERVICE_ACCOUNT_JSON_KEY to access the GCS bucket.

At first, we need to create a secret with a Restic password. Then, we have to create a Repository crd that will hold the information about our backend storage.

Create Secret:

Let’s create a secret called encryption-secret with the Restic password,

$ echo -n 'changeit' > RESTIC_PASSWORD
$ kubectl create secret generic -n demo encryption-secret \
    --from-file=./RESTIC_PASSWORD \
secret "encryption-secret" created

Create Repository:

Now, let’s create a Repository with the information of our desired GCS bucket. Below is the YAML of Repository crd we are going to create,

apiVersion: stash.appscode.com/v1alpha1
kind: Repository
metadata:
  name: gcs-repo
  namespace: demo
spec:
  backend:
    gcs:
      bucket: stash-testing
      prefix: /demo/mariadb/sample-mariadb
    storageSecretName: encryption-secret

Let’s create the Repository we have shown above,

$ kubectl apply -f https://github.com/stashed/docs/raw/v2022.06.21/docs/guides/platforms/gke/examples/repository.yaml
repository.stash.appscode.com/gcs-repo created

Now, we are ready to backup our sample data into this backend.

Prepare ServiceAccount

Now we are going create a Kubernetes service account and bind it with the IAM service account storage-accessor-gsa that we have created earlier. This binding allows the Kubernetes service account to act as the IAM service account.

Lets create a ServiceAccount,

$ kubectl create serviceaccount -n demo storage-accessor-ksa

Let’s add the IAM annotations to the ServiceAccount,

$ kubectl annotate sa -n demo storage-accessor-ksa iam.gke.io/gcp-service-account="[email protected]"

Now Let’s bind it with the IAM service account,

$ gcloud iam service-accounts add-iam-policy-binding [email protected] \
    --role roles/iam.workloadIdentityUser \
    --member "serviceAccount:sample-project.svc.id.goog[demo/storage-accessor-ksa]"

Backup

To schedule a backup, we have to create a BackupConfiguration object targeting the respective AppBinding of our desired database. Then Stash will create a CronJob to periodically backup the database.

Create BackupConfiguration:

Below is the YAML for BackupConfiguration object we are going to use to backup the sample-mariadb database we have deployed earlier,

apiVersion: stash.appscode.com/v1beta1
kind: BackupConfiguration
metadata:
  name: sample-mariadb-backup
  namespace: demo
spec:
  runtimeSettings:
    pod:
      serviceAccountName: storage-accessor-ksa
  schedule: "*/5 * * * *"
  repository:
    name: gcs-repo
  target:
    ref:
      apiVersion: appcatalog.appscode.com/v1alpha1
      kind: AppBinding
      name: sample-mariadb
  retentionPolicy:
    name: keep-last-5
    keepLast: 5
    prune: true

Here,

  • spec.runtimeSettins.pod.serviceAccountName refers to the name of the ServiceAccount to use in the backup pod.
  • spec.repository refers to the Repository object gcs-repo that holds backend GCS bucket information.
  • spec.target.refrefers to the AppBinding object that holds the connection information of our targeted database.

Let’s create the BackupConfiguration crd we have shown above,

$ kubectl apply -f https://github.com/stashed/docs/raw/v2022.06.21/docs/guides/platforms/gke/examples/backupconfiguration.yaml
backupconfiguration.stash.appscode.com/sample-mariadb-backup created

Verify Backup Setup Successful:

If everything goes well, the phase of the BackupConfiguration should be Ready. The Ready phase indicates that the backup setup is successful. Let’s verify the Phase of the BackupConfiguration,

$ kubectl get backupconfiguration -n demo
NAME                    TASK                    SCHEDULE      PAUSED   PHASE      AGE
sample-mariadb-backup   mariadb-backup-10.5.8   */5 * * * *            Ready      11s

Verify CronJob:

Stash will create a CronJob with the schedule specified in spec.schedule field of BackupConfiguration object.

Verify that the CronJob has been created using the following command,

$ kubectl get cronjob -n demo
NAME                                 SCHEDULE      SUSPEND   ACTIVE   LAST SCHEDULE   AGE
stash-backup-sample-mariadb-backup   */5 * * * *   False     0        15s             17s

Wait for BackupSession:

The sample-mariadb-backup CronJob will trigger a backup on each scheduled slot by creating a BackupSession object.

Now, wait for a schedule to appear. Run the following command to watch for a BackupSession object,

$ kubectl get backupsession -n demo -w
NAME                               INVOKER-TYPE          INVOKER-NAME            PHASE     AGE
sample-mariadb-backup-1606994706   BackupConfiguration   sample-mariadb-backup   Running   24s
sample-mariadb-backup-1606994706   BackupConfiguration   sample-mariadb-backup   Running   75s
sample-mariadb-backup-1606994706   BackupConfiguration   sample-mariadb-backup   Succeeded   103s

Here, the phase Succeeded means that the backup process has been completed successfully.

Verify Backup:

Now, we are going to verify whether the backed up data is present in the backend or not. Once a backup is completed, Stash will update the respective Repository object to reflect the backup completion. Check that the repository gcs-repo has been updated by the following command,

$ kubectl get repository -n demo gcs-repo
NAME       INTEGRITY   SIZE        SNAPSHOT-COUNT   LAST-SUCCESSFUL-BACKUP   AGE
gcs-repo   true        1.327 MiB   1                60s                      8m

Now, if we navigate to the GCS bucket, we will see the backed up data has been stored in demo/mariadb/sample-mariadb directory as specified by .spec.backend.gcs.prefix field of the Repository object.

  Backup data in GCS Bucket
Fig: Backup data in GCS Bucket

Note: Stash keeps all the backed up data encrypted. So, data in the backend will not make any sense until they are decrypted.

Restore

In this section, we are going to show you how to restore in the same database which may be necessary when you have accidentally deleted any data from the running database.

Temporarily Pause Backup:

At first, let’s stop taking any further backup of the database so that no backup runs after we delete the sample data. We are going to pause the BackupConfiguration object. Stash will stop taking any further backup when the BackupConfiguration is paused.

Let’s pause the sample-mariadb-backup BackupConfiguration,

$ kubectl patch backupconfiguration -n demo sample-mariadb-backup--type="merge" --patch='{"spec": {"paused": true}}'
backupconfiguration.stash.appscode.com/sample-mgo-rs-backup patched

Or you can use the Stash kubectl plugin to pause the BackupConfiguration,

$ kubectl stash pause backup -n demo --backupconfig=sample-mariadb-backup
BackupConfiguration demo/sample-mariadb-backup has been paused successfully.

Verify that the BackupConfiguration has been paused,

$ kubectl get backupconfiguration -n demo sample-mariadb-backup
NAME                   TASK                    SCHEDULE      PAUSED   PHASE   AGE
sample-mariadb-backup  mariadb-backup-10.5.8   */5 * * * *   true     Ready   26m

Notice the PAUSED column. Value true for this field means that the BackupConfiguration has been paused.

Stash will also suspend the respective CronJob.

$ kubectl get cronjob -n demo
NAME                                 SCHEDULE      SUSPEND   ACTIVE   LAST SCHEDULE   AGE
stash-backup-sample-mariadb-backup   */5 * * * *   True      0        2m59s           20m

Simulate Disaster:

Now, let’s simulate an accidental deletion scenario. Here, we are going to exec into the database pod and delete the company database we had created earlier.

$ kubectl exec -it -n demo sample-mariadb-0 -c mariadb -- bash
[email protected]:/ mysql -u${MYSQL_ROOT_USERNAME} -p${MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD}
Welcome to the MariaDB monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MariaDB connection id is 341
Server version: 10.5.8-MariaDB-1:10.5.8+maria~focal mariadb.org binary distribution

Copyright (c) 2000, 2018, Oracle, MariaDB Corporation Ab and others.

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.

# View current databases
MariaDB [(none)]> show databases;
+--------------------+
| Database           |
+--------------------+
| company            |
| information_schema |
| mysql              |
| performance_schema |
+--------------------+
4 rows in set (0.001 sec)

# Let's delete the "company" database
MariaDB [(none)]> drop database company;
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.268 sec)

# Verify that the "company" database has been deleted
MariaDB [(none)]> show databases;
+--------------------+
| Database           |
+--------------------+
| information_schema |
| mysql              |
| performance_schema |
+--------------------+
3 rows in set (0.000 sec)

MariaDB [(none)]> exit
Bye

Create RestoreSession:

To restore the database, you have to create a RestoreSession object pointing to the AppBinding of the targeted database.

Here, is the YAML of the RestoreSession object that we are going to use for restoring our sample-mariadb database.

apiVersion: stash.appscode.com/v1beta1
kind: RestoreSession
metadata:
  name: sample-mariadb-restore
  namespace: demo
spec:
  runtimeSettings:
    pod:
      serviceAccountName: storage-accessor-ksa
  repository:
    name: gcs-repo
  target:
    ref:
      apiVersion: appcatalog.appscode.com/v1alpha1
      kind: AppBinding
      name: sample-mariadb
  rules:
  - snapshots: [latest]

Here,

  • spec.runtimeSettins.pod.serviceAccountName refers to the name of the ServiceAccount to use in the restore pod.
  • spec.repository.name specifies the Repository object that holds the backend information where our backed up data has been stored.
  • spec.target.ref refers to the respective AppBinding of the sample-mariadb database.
  • spec.rules specifies that we are restoring data from the latest backup snapshot of the database.

Let’s create the RestoreSession object object we have shown above,

$ kubectl apply -f https://github.com/stashed/docs/raw/v2022.06.21/docs/guides/platforms/gke/examples/restoresession.yaml
restoresession.stash.appscode.com/sample-mariadb-restore created

Once, you have created the RestoreSession object, Stash will create a restore Job. Run the following command to watch the phase of the RestoreSession object,

$ kubectl get restoresession -n demo -w
NAME                     REPOSITORY   PHASE     AGE
sample-mariadb-restore   gcs-repo     Running   15s
sample-mariadb-restore   gcs-repo     Succeeded   18s

The Succeeded phase means that the restore process has been completed successfully.

Verify Restored Data:

Now, let’s exec into the database pod and verify whether data actual data was restored or not,

$ kubectl exec -it -n demo sample-mariadb-0 -c mariadb -- bash
[email protected]:/ mysql -u${MYSQL_ROOT_USERNAME} -p${MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD}
Welcome to the MariaDB monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MariaDB connection id is 341
Server version: 10.5.8-MariaDB-1:10.5.8+maria~focal mariadb.org binary distribution

Copyright (c) 2000, 2018, Oracle, MariaDB Corporation Ab and others.

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.

# Verify that the "company" database has been restored
MariaDB [(none)]> show databases;
+--------------------+
| Database           |
+--------------------+
| company            |
| information_schema |
| mysql              |
| performance_schema |
+--------------------+
4 rows in set (0.001 sec)

# Verify that the tables of the "company" database have been restored
MariaDB [(none)]> show tables from company;
+-------------------+
| Tables_in_company |
+-------------------+
| employees         |
+-------------------+
1 row in set (0.000 sec)

# Verify that the sample data of the "employees" table has been restored
MariaDB [(none)]> select * from company.employees;
+---------------+--------+
| name          | salary |
+---------------+--------+
| John Doe      |   5000 |
| James William |   7000 |
+---------------+--------+
2 rows in set (0.000 sec)

MariaDB [(none)]> exit
Bye

Hence, we can see from the above output that the deleted data has been restored successfully from the backup.

Resume Backup

Since our data has been restored successfully we can now resume our usual backup process. Resume the BackupConfiguration using following command,

$ kubectl patch backupconfiguration -n demo sample-mariadb-backup --type="merge" --patch='{"spec": {"paused": false}}'
backupconfiguration.stash.appscode.com/sample-mariadb-backup patched

Or you can use the Stash kubectl plugin to resume the BackupConfiguration,

$ kubectl stash resume -n demo --backupconfig=sample-mariadb-backup
BackupConfiguration demo/sample-mariadb-backup has been resumed successfully.

Verify that the BackupConfiguration has been resumed,

$ kubectl get backupconfiguration -n demo sample-mariadb-backup
NAME                    TASK                    SCHEDULE      PAUSED   PHASE   AGE
sample-mariadb-backup   mariadb-backup-10.5.8   */5 * * * *   false    Ready   29m

Here, false in the PAUSED column means the backup has been resume successfully. The CronJob also should be resumed now.

$ kubectl get cronjob -n demo
NAME                                 SCHEDULE      SUSPEND   ACTIVE   LAST SCHEDULE   AGE
stash-backup-sample-mariadb-backup   */5 * * * *   False     0        2m59s           29m

Here, False in the SUSPEND column means the CronJob is no longer suspended and will trigger in the next schedule.

Cleanup

To cleanup the Kubernetes resources created by this tutorial, run:

kubectl delete -n demo backupconfiguration sample-mariadb-backup
kubectl delete -n demo restoresession sample-mariadb-restore
kubectl delete -n demo sa storage-accessor-ksa
kubectl delete -n demo secret encryption-secret
kubectl delete -n demo repository gcs-repo
kubectl delete -n demo mariadb sample-mariadb
kubectl delete ns demo